Contents

Chapter 1
Shift Happens! Composting Toilet Systems Emerge as Viable Wastewater Alternatives 1

Chapter 2
The Big Picture: Managing Wastewater Sustainably 9
Better Ways Emerging: From Disposal to Utilization • A New Design Protocol for Better Water Eco-Nomics

Chapter 3
What Is a Composting Toilet System and How Does It Compost? 15 General Types of Composting Toilet Systems • The Cast of Characters in a Composting Toilet System • What Is Composting? • Success Factors for Composting Toilet Systems • Pathogens • Vectors and Insects • The Elements of Human Excrement

Chapter 4
Choosing and Planning a Composting Toilet System 31 Local Regulations, Performance, Lifestyle • Installation Considerations • Keeping It Warm • Ventilation and Exhaust • Toilet Stool Considerations • Capacity Issues • Cost • Leachate • Urine Management

Chapter 5
Installing Your System 47 General Installation Guidelines • Installing the Components

Chapter 6
Operating and Maintaining Your Composting Toilet System 53 Starting Up Your Composter • Additives for Composting Toilets • Earthworms • Controlling Insects • What Do You Do With It? • Regular Maintenance Steps • Troubleshooting • Do‘s and Don‘ts

Chapter 7
The Systems Some Manufactured Systems, Site-Built Designs and Toilet Stools 69 Manufactured Composting Toilet Systems • Site-Built Composting Toilet Systems • Other Systems and Accessories • Toilet Stools for Your Composting Toilet System

Chapter 8
Composting Toilets at Work 125 Profiles of Owners and Operators • Composting Toilets in Development Programs

Chapter 9
What About Graywater? 167 Know Your Graywater • Some Graywater Systems

Chapter 10
The Future of Composting Toilet Systems 195

General Resources 198

Glossary 199

State Regulations 202

Appendix 209
Water and Wastewater: The Origins of the Piped Society • How Sewers and Septic Systems Pollute • How to Choose an Ecological Wastewater System • Sample Maintenance Contract • And more...

Index 234

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